Monthly eNews February 2021

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Our Next Meeting:
Wednesday, February 24th

Making the Most of your Tech Infrastructure
by GatesAir

Point to Point OR High Density - You Pick? Introducing the Ascent Media Gateway | The STL Codec for both Audio & Video. Learn about what signal distribution challenges other broadcasters are experiencing, what connection types are available today and how A/V is being distributed in the most cost efficient manner. Nick VanHaaster will be our host.

We will also take the first round of nominations in preparation of our 2021 Chapter Officers election.

7:00 PM - Meeting/Program
This meeting is Virtual
Connection information will be distributed
in the days just prior to the meeting.

Look Back 8 Years

Election Season is Here
Nominations are now Open

Nominations for the 2021 Chapter 24 Officers Election are now open. Any Chapter member in good standing may volunteer to run for one of four Officer positions; Chair, Vice Chair, Secretary, or Treasurer. Any member in good standing can nominate another member in good standing but the nominee must be aware of the nomination and agree to run.

The continued success of our Chapter depends entirely on the participation of our members. The ultimate way to participate is to serve the Chapter as one of its Officers. Officer duties are described in Article V of our By Laws as published on the web site. Please read them over and submit your nomination.

Nominations will remain open until the end of the Chapter's March 25th monthly meeting. The election will be held from April 1st until the close of the Chapter's April 21st monthly meeting. Due to the Pandemic the preferred method of voting will be on line, a paper ballot will be available only by special request. Election results will be announced at the start of the Chapter's May 27th meeting with the new Officers assuming their duties at that meeting.

Leonard Charles and Kevin Ruppert are serving on this year's Nominations Committee. Please contact either of them with your nomination.

Last Meeting's Minutes
Submitted by Russ Awe, Secretary

The SBE Chapter 24 meeting was called to order by Chapter Chair Britny Williams at 7:00pm, January 28, 2021 via MS Teams. The meeting had 11 members present with seven being certified and three guests.

The Secretary meeting minutes from 11/19/2020 were moved by Leonard Charles, seconded by Thomas Smith and approved as submitted.

Mike Norton as Chapter Treasurer reported that one sustaining membership check was received in January from Sound Devices. The Chapter 24 account balance remains in the black.

With the eNews letter, Leonard Charles reported that the deadline for articles for the February eNews letter is Monday February 1st at 5pm. Please forward any article of interest to Chapter 24 members to Leonard Charles.

Britney reported that we have received a request to transfer three people into Chapter 24. More details will be available at the next meeting.

Fred Sperry with Sustaining Membership sent a report that Chapter 24 has had three recent renewals. WISC, WKOW and Sound Devices, thank you for your support! Chapter 24 has 11 Sustaining Members.

Britny reported that Leonard Charles has done a fantastic job with scheduling the programs for Chapter 24. Thank you Chuck for all your hard work on obtaining programs. For a full list, dates and planned programs please see the Chapter 24 web site.

Nominations for the 2021 Chapter 24 Officers Election are now open. Any member in good standing can nominate another member in good standing. Nominations are open until March 25th, election will be held April 1st through 21st, the new officers begin their responsibilities at the May 27th Chapter meeting. Thanks to Kevin Ruppert who is serving on this year's nominations committee along with chair Leonard Charles.

Tom Smith with Frequency Coordination reported that nothing is happening due to COVID.

With the National SBE news, Leonard Charles reported that the SBE Technical Professional Training Program creates an easy way for those new to broadcast engineering and media technology to take advantage of several SBE programs and services to kick start their careers. It includes SBE MemberPlus, enrollment in the SBE Mentor Program, preparation for the SBE CBT exam, a copy of the SBE Broadcast Engineering Handbook and more. Details are available by watching the January SBE WEBxtra on the SBE YouTube Channel. There is an online application at

The new Webinars by SBE series, the 2021 IP Networking Series, began on January 21 with Part 1: Network Topology and Standards, now available in the archives. Part 2, A Focus on Ethernet Switching, will be presented in February, and Part 3, A Focus on Everything Layer 3, will be presented in March. Registration on the web site.

The SBE membership period runs from April 1 to March 31 of each year. Your dues renewal letter and 2021 membership card will be mailed next week. You can also renew online at When you renew, be sure to not only verify your contact information, but also your chapter affiliation.

There was no old business.

Meeting was adjourned at 7:14pm.

The meeting was followed with a presentation from Leslie Kutasi of Kathrein Broadcast USA. Les presented on FM, LPTV and SFN broadcast antennas as well as 900 MHz microwave for FM and STL. Also discussed was LPTV with omni pattern and panel antennas.

Alternate Broadcast Inspection Program Update
from Dennis Baldridge

The last 5 stations I have inspected for Wisconsin in 2021 were all missing CAP tests on the SAGE unit. Other state inspectors have noticed similar issues.

Worse yet, the Chief Operator in each case thought they were compliant with the most current firmware. Even more alarming was the fact that the Chief Operator was not accurately reviewing the logs, EAS tests, or making notations in the station's logs as required. These are basic Chief Operator responsibilities and are fundamental to verifying EAS compliance and the integrity of the program. Failure in this area opens the stations up to potential Notice of Violation (NOV) by the FCC.

The problem was discovered to be a missing security patch CR rev5. This patch was not part of the original 95.00 update, since the patch was not issued till after its release. It is now part of the 95.00 firmware.

Sage tech support sent me the following message directly:
Dennis, hello! They're missing the CR-Rev5 update, which we released in July and replaces a certificate that expired at the end of October. Download the update file from here: ...then upload to each ENDEC using the Upload Firmware page of the web interface. As of today, the SAGE should say: CR-REV5, P4 under VERSION.

WBA Summer Conference Rescheduled
from Michelle Vetterkind

The dates for the WBA Summer Conference are being moved from the middle of June to the end of August. The Summer Conference will now take place Wednesday & Thursday, August 25 & 26 at the beautiful Blue Harbor Resort in Sheboygan (on the shores of Lake Michigan).

It was determined that the date change would give the best chance at having a Summer Conference that best resembles our traditional conferences. Plus - it's our WBA 70th Anniversary celebration!!

The hope is that delaying the conference for 10 weeks will provide more time for distribution of the vaccine so that more members might be comfortable attending in person.

Because the new dates put the Summer Conference only two weeks before the Broadcasters Clinic, there will not be a traditional Engineering Day running concurrent with the conference, however, we will continue working with our Clinic Chair and MTI Chair on plans for a smaller event for engineers, including some form of our Media Technology Institute (MTI).

The Conference Committee will meet in the coming weeks to finalize the agenda for the Summer Conference. Look for details soon!

Steven Siehr 1943 - 2020
a tribute from Neal McLain CSBE

Steven F. Siehr, of Madison, died on December 31, 2020. (Obituary)

Steve was a personal friend and colleague. We met in 1970s when we both worked at Illinois Teachers College North (now Northeastern Illinois University). Although the college did not operate a television station, it operated a small television studio for training purposes.

Steve and I shared responsibility for the television studio. I maintained the equipment and Steve supervised general operations. He directed studio operations to accommodate faculty requests for access to the studio.

During this same time period, a new industry known as "Cable Television" ("CATV") was gaining popularity. Initially simply a "big antenna" to consolidate the signals of a number of broadcast stations, non-broadcast "cable only" programming was gaining popularity. Time Inc. launched HBO via satellite in 1972, followed shortly thereafter by Ted Turner's Atlanta television station WTBS and Pat Robertson's Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN).

At the time, the Evanston Public Library subscribed to a couple of CATV industry trade journals. I studied these journals with great interest. I wanted to join that industry.

In 1972 I left Chicago to take the job of Chief Television Engineer at Eastern Michigan University in Ypsilanti. I lost contact with Steve.

But Steve didn't lose contact with me. One day he tracked me down to tell me about his new job at what was then called Complete Channel TV, the franchised cable television operator for the City of Madison. He also told me that the position of Chief Engineer was open, and that the general manager, Rod Thole, was currently interviewing candidates. Steve had recommended me.

A few days later Rod called me and asked me to come to Madison for an interview. He met me at the airport and took me to lunch. It was the most detailed interview I had ever taken.

I didn't hear from Rod for a few weeks. Then one evening he called and offered me the job. I accepted the offer and we (wife, kids, dogs) moved to Madison.

I worked in the cable TV industry for the next 24+ years. I retired in 1999 and moved to Texas to be near our daughter and her family in Houston. I'm now a member of Houston SBE Chapter 105.

I could write a book about my subsequent adventures in the CATV industry. Someday I might do exactly that.

But it all started when Steve Siehr tracked me down in Michigan and introduced me to Rod Thole.

Thanks, Steve. I owe you my career. Rest in peace my friend.

Program Ideas Appreciated

The Chapter 24 meeting schedule is available here. Is there a topic you would like to see covered at one of our local Chapter 24 meetings? Or, better yet, is there a topic that you'd like to speak about at an upcoming meeting? Please forward any ideas to Britny Williams or to one of the Chapter 24 officers for consideration. There are many open dates available.

Amateur Radio News
Compiled by Tom Weeden, WJ9H

Dayton Hamvention
The Dayton Hamvention has been canceled for the second year. "Unfortunately, several setbacks in the recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic make necessary the difficult decision to cancel Hamvention 2021," a January 11 announcement from the Hamvention Executive Committee said. Sponsored by the Dayton Amateur Radio Association (DARA), Hamvention was set to take place May 21 - 23 in Xenia, Ohio.

"Hundreds of volunteers have been working to do everything necessary to bring this Hamvention to the many amateur radio enthusiasts and vendors who support the Dayton Hamvention," the committee continued. "Vaccine distribution both in the United States and around the world is lagging behind what was planned. In addition, the emergence of a more communicable form of the COVID-19 virus increases the potential for further public health problems in the next few months. We make this difficult decision for the safety of our guests and vendors." Tickets deferred last year will be deferred again until 2022.

Hamvention is the largest annual amateur radio gathering in the US.

New Digital Mode
A new digital mode, WSJT-X version 2.4.0, will introduce a new protocol called Q65, which, according to the Quick Start Guide, is designed for "minimal two-way QSOs (contacts) over especially difficult propagation paths." The Guide said, "On paths with Doppler spread more than a few hertz, the weak-signal performance of Q65 is the best among all WSJT-X modes. Q65 is particularly effective for tropospheric scatter, ionospheric scatter, and EME ("Earth-Moon-Earth" or "moonbounce") on VHF and higher bands, as well as other types of fast-fading signals."

The new protocol uses 65-tone frequency-shift keying and builds on the demonstrated weak-signal strengths of QRA64, introduced in 2016. According to the Guide, "Q65 will enable stations with a modest Yagi and 100 W or more to work one another on 6 meters at distances up to ~1,600 kilometers at most times, in dead-band conditions." The most sensitive mode of Q65 claims usable signals at a signal-to-noise ratio of as low as -33.8 dB, or 33.8 dB below noise level. Q65_Quick_Start.pdf

New FCC Chair
President Joseph Biden has designated FCC Commissioner Jessica Rosenworcel as acting chair of the FCC. She succeeds, at least temporarily, former FCC chair Ajit Pai, who resigned effective on January 20.

"I am honored to be designated as the Acting Chairwoman of the Federal Communications Commission by President Biden," Rosenworcel said in a statement. "I thank the President for the opportunity to lead an agency with such a vital mission and talented staff. It is a privilege to serve the American people and work on their behalf to expand the reach of communications opportunity in the digital age."

Prior to joining the FCC, she served as Senior Communications Counsel for the United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. Before entering public service, she practiced communications law in Washington, DC.

The newest FCC commissioner, Nathan Simington, a Republican appointee, said Rosenworcel "brings deep knowledge and experience and highly informed judgment to her new position." He expressed appreciation that the Biden Administration acted promptly to establish FCC leadership by "selecting such a distinguished public servant for this vital role."

(Excerpts from the American Radio Relay League's web site)

compiled by Tom Smith

DTS Restrictions Eased
On January 12th, the FCC adopted rules (FCC-21-21A1) that eased the restrictions on the placement of transmitters used for Distributed Television Systems (DTS) otherwise known as Single Frequency Networks (SFN). These transmitters are used as fill-in transmitters within a TV station's coverage area and operate on the same channel as the main transmitter unlike a TV translator which operates on a different channel. The current rules could limit providing the needed coverage of population areas near the edge of a TV stations service contour by limiting the placement of DTS/SFN transmitters from a suitable location in order to avoid exceeding required signal levels beyond the main station's 50/90 41 dbu contour. The FCC had limited the 50/90 41 dbu signal contour from a SFN transmitter to not exceed the 50/90 41 dbu signal contour of the main transmitter. If a TV station built a SFN system using only a number of small synchronous transmitters without a main tall tower transmitter site, each of the SFN transmitters could not exceed the theoretical 41dbu contour of a station operating at full power and full height. Because of these limitations, all SFN transmitters were also required to be located within the 41 dbu contour. A 50/90 contour means 50% of the homes can receive the station 90% of the time and is considered the service contour for a digital TV station. An analog TV station's service area was defined by 50% of the homes 50% of the time (50/50).

The new rules for DTS/SFN transmitter placement still require the transmitter to be placed within the 50/90 41 dbu contour, but the 50/90 41 dbu signal coverage can now exceed the 50/90 41 dbu contour of the main transmitter or the theoretical contour in the case of an all SFN system. The DTS/SFN transmitter may now exceed the 50/90 41 dbu contour of the main transmitter, but must limit its 50/50 41dbu contour to the main stations 50/50 41 dbu contour. There are also some 50/10 signal levels that must be accounted for when figuring interference levels.

To give some idea of the increase in the possibilities in placing DTS/SFN transmitters to achieve needed coverage and using the theoretical limits for a full power/full height station from the FCC, the 50/90 41 dbu service contour for a UHF station would be 64 miles and the 50/50 41 dbu service contour would be 88 miles. That gives a planner of a DTS/SFN transmitter site up to 15 miles to play with. There are different contour and mileage limits for VHF because of the differences in propagation to be considered.

Finally, the FCC also extended the use of DTS/SFN systems to Class A and other low-power TV stations with similar rules.

C-Band Auction Sets Record
On January 15th, the FCC announced the conclusion of the auction (DOC-369265A1) for 280 MHz of spectrum in the existing C-band satellite spectrum. The auction raised 80.9 billion dollars which set a new record eclipsing the previous high of 44.9 billion dollars. The bidders won 5,684 spectrum blocks. The winners will now bid in the stage of the auction for the specific frequency blocks in the markets where they won spectrum. In the auction, a bidder bid for a number of 20 MHz blocks of spectrum in each market and they now are required to bid for how they wish to combine those spectrum blocks into a continuous block of spectrum or some sort of split blocks of spectrum. With the auction completed, the transition of the 3.7 to 4.0 GHz part of the C-band to wireless broadband use will begin as well as the repacking of the satellite users to the remaining 4.0 to 4.2 GHz portion of the C-band spectrum.

More Sharing in 12 Ghz Band
On January 15th, the FCC adopted a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (FCC-21-13A1) seeking information on allowing terrestrial 5G mobile services in the 12.2 to 12.7 GHz band. The band is currently used for Direct Broadcast Satellite, Non-geostationary satellite and fixed terrestrial service. The Non-geostationary satellite services are starting to be used by One Web, Kepler and SpaceX for satellite internet service. The direct broadcast satellite services include both Dish and DirecTV. The fixed terrestrial service is assigned to multi-channel video distribution and data service. There is currently one system in operation and a number of unbuilt licenses. The MVDDS systems were to be designed as to avoid interference to direct broadcast satellite receivers by using directional transmit antennas pointed south which is the opposite direction from the northerly pointed satellite transmissions. A group called the MVDDS 5G Coalition is asking the FCC to allow fixed and mobile terrestrial operation for wireless 5G broadband use on a non-interfering basis. The notice has a long discussion on the possible interference issues and solutions. This rulemaking is in response to a 2016 petition from 11 of the 12 MVDDS licenses at that time.

The rulemaking is not drawing a conclusion on going forward at this time and reads more like a notice of inquiry than a rulemaking. An inquiry asks for information on going forward and a notice of rulemaking normally asks for comment on an actual set of proposed rules. Because the FCC has not proposed any actual rules, it is difficult to determine if the proposal will or will not be adopted.

T-Band Applications to be Accepted
The FCC announced (DA-21-82A1) that they will soon accept new applications for land mobile licenses in the T-Band. This is the result of the signing of a bill on December 27, 2020 rescinding a requirement of a 2012 bill for tax relief and job creation that required the FCC to auction the T-Band spectrum. T-Band are land mobile allocations on certain UHF-TV channels from channel 14 through 20 in 13 large markets. One or two UHF-TV channels are allocated in a market for land mobile with three channels assigned in New York and Los Angeles and can either be used for commercial or public safety use and was created to increase land mobile operations with a shortage of available spectrum for land mobile.

For the Record
(Wisconsin FCC Actions Granted)
compiled by Leonard Charles
from the FCC Daily Digest

Good Karma Broadcasting, LLC
          WTTN, 1580 Khz, Columbus, WI
          W224EG, 92.7 Mhz, Madison, WI
Voluntary Assignment of License
From: Good Karma Broadcasting, LLC

          WGKB, 1510 Khz, Waukesha, WI
          W269DL, 101.7 Mhz, Wilwaukee, WI
Voluntary Assignment of License
From: New WRRD, LLC
To: Good Karma Broadcasting, LLC

Fusion Radio, LLC
          W277AE, 103.1 Mhz, Madison, WI
Voluntary Assignment of License
From: Fusion Radio, LLC
To: Educational Media Foundation

Certification and Education
compiled by Jim Hermanson

Well Done!
Congratulations to...
Summer Coff for being newly certified as a Certified Radio Operator (CRO).

The Open Exam Schedule
Exam Dates Location Application Deadline
(to SBE National Office)

  June 4-14, 2021

  Local Chapters (Madison Area)

  April 16, 2021

  August 6-16, 2021

  Local Chapters (Madison Area)

  June 11, 2021

  November 5-15, 2021

  Local Chapters (Madison Area)

  September 10, 2021

Each year, account balance permitting, Chapter 24 will reimburse half the application fee to any member of Chapter 24 in good standing who successfully obtains any SBE certification level not previously held by that member. Contact the SBE Chapter 24 chairperson or certification chairperson for more information.

When you are ready to take an SBE exam, note the open exam schedule, complete the appropriate application (found here... and send it directly to the SBE National office (see address below) with the respective fee. You will be notified once your application is approved. Your local certification chairman will receive a list of applicants and exams in his/her chapter and arrange for a proctor. He/she will then contact applicants to schedule a mutually agreeable date, time, and place for the exam(s) within the respective exam date window. This must be coordinated before the exam will be sent by SBE National. Completed exam(s) will be mailed back to SBE National for grading. Pass/fail results will be mailed directly to the applicants within approximately six weeks.

The majority of SBE certifications are open book and access to the Internet is allowed to give a more "real world" situation.

You may mail, email or fax your applications to:

Megan E. Clappe
Certification Director
9102 N. Meridian St.
Suite 150
Indianapolis, IN 46260

317-846-9120 Fax

ATSC3 Specialist Certification Now Available

The Society of Broadcast Engineers, in its continuing effort to advance its Program of Certification, has added a new Specialist Certification to its offerings: The ATSC3 Specialist. In addition to various certification levels that require a certain time of professional career experience and cover a broad knowledge base, the SBE offers several Specialist Certifications, each one focusing on a specific understanding of a technology. The SBE began its program of certification in 1975.

The new level of certification was developed by the Society of Broadcast Engineers Certification Committee, chaired by Ralph Hogan, CPBE, DRB, CBNE, with direct assistance from the Advanced Television Systems Committee. The first ATSC3 SBE Certification exams are made available during the February 2021 SBE exam period. The initial idea to create the SBE ATSC3 Specialist Certification began in 2018. The SBE Certification Committee worked closely with key ATSC members for input on suitable information to include in the exam. The Certification Committee also worked with several SBE members with direct experience installing ATSC 3.0 systems. From this, a set of questions was created, beta tests were conducted, the questions were reviewed and adjusted and additional beta testing was held. The final question pool covers a mix of practical application and technology standards.

"The SBE is grateful to the ATSC for its help in assembling the exam question pool," said SBE Certification Chair Ralph Hogan. "As is the practice in creating any level of SBE Certification, a group of subject matter experts is consulted."

"I also extend my thanks to the ATSC members who helped in the exam development process. As the foremost experts on ATSC 3.0, their contributions were invaluable. I was also continually impressed by the SBE's methodical exam development process, ensuring that the exam would fairly and accurately assess a candidate's understanding of ATSC 3.0. Individuals who successfully pass the exam will have earned a truly meaningful certificate," added Madeleine Noland, president of ATSC.

Like all SBE Certifications, the exam questions will continue an ongoing review process to ensure the information being covered is relevant and current. Certifications are valid for five years, and then must be renewed or advanced to a higher level.

On the announcement, SBE President Wayne Pecena, CPBE, 8-VSB, AMD, DRB, CBNE, said, "Certification is one of the foundation blocks of the SBE. Just as the 8-VSB and DRB Specialist Certifications covered new technologies when they were introduced, so does the ATSC3 Specialist Certification."

The first SBE Specialist Certification was offered in 2005. The existing Specialist Certifications are the 8-VSB Specialist (8-VSB), AM Directional Specialist (AMD) and Digital Radio Broadcast Specialist (DRB). To apply for a specialist certification, an individual must currently hold certification on the Broadcast Engineer, Senior Broadcast Engineer, Professional Broadcast Engineer or Broadcast Networking Engineer Certification level. Exams must be completed within three hours and consist of 50 multiple-choice questions (two points each) and one essay question (20 points maximum). Examinees are provided one essay question to answer. Exams are pass/fail, and a score of 84 is a passing grade.

SBE Rolls Out Training Program for New Broadcast/Media Engineers

Utilizing a number of current SBE programs, the SBE is uniquely positioned to provide a valuable service to the broadcast industry: training new entrants to the field. The SBE will offer the SBE Technical Professional Training Program, an affordable and time sensitive way to train newer and entry level technical professionals at television and radio stations. The program includes:
SBE's extensive technical webinar offerings developed and cataloged for on-demand use that reflect the latest developments in the industry. The program includes SBE MemberPlus membership - access to all SBE webinars - more than 100.
The SBE Engineering Handbook, published by McGraw Hill and SBE, is a hard copy reference volume for hands-on use in designing and maintaining technical facilities.
The SBE Mentor Program - providing new entrants (mentees) to our profession with regular access and guidance from a seasoned professional.
The SBE Certification Program entry-level certification, Certified Broadcast Technologist (CBT) exam, demonstrating a comprehension of technical and regulatory requirements of station operation.
The SBE CertPreview (exam preparation) for the CBT certification, along with the mentor's knowledge and experience, in support of the TPT participant to help prepare for the CBT exam.
This program is designed to be deployable by group broadcasters, independent broadcasters and even state associations. Ideally, the mentor would come from within the ranks of the organization in which the mentee is employed. However, it can be performed by any qualified engineer willing to invest the time. SBE facilitates the establishment of the mentor-mentee relationship.

For more information contact Education Director Cathy Orosz at the SBE National Office.

February Webinars

A Focus on Ethernet Switching
February 25, 2021, 1 PM CT

The series instructor is Wayne Pecena, CPBE, 8-VSB, AMD, DRD, CBNE. He is the Associate Director of Educational Broadcast Services at Texas A&M University. Wayne has over 48 years of broadcast and IP network engineering experience and holds BS and MS degrees from Texas A&M University. Wayne is a Fellow of the Society of Broadcast Engineers (SBE) and holds the Certified Professional Broadcast Engineer (CPBE) and Certified Broadcast Network Engineer (CBNE) certifications from the SBE. He currently serves in his second term as the national President of the SBE. He was named the 2012 SBE Educator of the Year, the 2014 Radio World Engineer of the year, and named an IEEE-BTS Distinguished Lecturer in 2018. He is a frequent industry speaker on IP Networking and cybersecurity topics for the broadcast and media technology professional.

The 2021 IP Networking Series continues with Module 2: A Focus on Ethernet Switching on Thursday, February 25, 2021 at 1 p.m. CT. Part 2 of the series will focus on understanding ethernet switching which has become the core technology of a modern IP network. Topics to be covered include Ethernet switch architecture, Ethernet switching principles, the collision domain, and the Ethernet frame; media access control/physical addressing; VLAN fundamentals, tagging and trunking; Spanning Tree Protocol; implementing VLANs; and Power-Over-Ethernet (PoE) standards.

The cost for SBE Members is $62. SBE members with the SBE MemberPlus option are FREE. Non-members fee is $92. Register here

Completion of SBE webinars qualifies for one credit, identified under Category I of the Recertification Schedule for SBE Certifications.

Several state-of-the-art radio, TV, multimedia, and IT engineering training is available through this page...

More information on SBE Education Programs is available here...

Views expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the official position of the Society of Broadcast Engineers (SBE), its officers, or its members. SBE Chapter 24, Inc. regrets, but is not liable for, any omissions or errors. Articles of interest to Chapter 24 members are accepted up to the close of business the 1st day of each month. Send your article to